Certainly in any particular culture an individual's conscious motivational content will usually be extremely different from the conscious motivational content of an individual in another society. For others, the need for creative fulfillment may supersede even the most basic needs.
In any case, here too we must distinguish, in a dynamic fashion, the overt behavior itself from its various motivations or purposes. An appreciation of the necessity of basic self-confidence and an understanding of how helpless people are without it, can be easily gained from a study of severe traumatic neurosis 8.
A preface to motivation theory.
They are much like the brain injured cases, described by Goldstein 6who manage to maintain their equilibrium by avoiding everything unfamiliar and strange and by ordering their restricted world in such a neat, disciplined, orderly fashion that everything in the world can be counted upon. Dedication to work, absorption in it, satisfaction from it.
But I consider this an obfuscating usage. Mostly this is because of the very serious lack of sound data in this area. We shall call people who are satisfied in these needs, basically satisfied people, and it is from these that we may expect the fullest and healthiest creativeness.
A conflict or a frustration is not necessarily pathogenic. If it is, then this desire for the ice cream cone becomes extremely important motivation. Affiliating, being part of a group family, friends, work. That is to say, people who have been made secure and strong in the earliest years, tend to remain secure and strong thereafter in the face of whatever threatens.
Life itself tends to be defined in terms of eating. Obviously a good way to obscure the 'higher' motivations, and to get a lopsided view of human capacities and human nature, is to make the organism extremely and chronically hungry or thirsty.
For our chronically and extremely hungry man, Utopia can be defined very simply as a place where there is plenty of food. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or inventions. Quarreling, physical assault, separation, divorce or death within the family may be particularly terrifying.
All the characteristics of a hierarchy of prepotency that we have described above, seem to hold for this one as well. A human being should be viewed as a an integrated unit.
Transcendence needs - A person is motivated by values which transcend beyond the personal self e. All that has been said of the physiological needs is equally true, although in lesser degree, of these desires.
These conditions are defended because without them the basic satisfactions are quite impossible, or at least, very severely endangered. Have an unhostile sense of humor. But essentially they seek high self-esteem and its behavior expressions more as a means-to-an-end than for its own sake; they seek self-assertion for the sake of love rather than for self-esteem itself.
Average behavior is usually both.
This "higher" version takes guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated". Looking at behavior itself may give us the wrong impression.
For example, some people often risk their own safety to rescue others from danger. Perception can be ego-transcending, unselfish.Motivation theory should be human-centered rather than animal-centered.
The situation or the field in which the organism reacts must be taken into account but the field alone can rarely serve as an exclusive explanation for behavior.
These theories include drive reduction theories and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Drive Reduction Theories Drive reduction theories of motivation suggest that people act in order to reduce needs and maintain a constant physiological state.
Need!a!practical!guide!on!how!to!motivate!your!employees?!Download!it!here!! agronumericus.com=motivation=ebook/!! Introduction! Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.
Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. While no single theory can adequately explain all human motivation, looking at the individual theories can offer a greater understanding of the forces that cause us to take action.
In reality, there are likely many different forces that interact to motivate behavior.
The Theory of Human Motivation presented a fresh approach on which human behavior was studied. The power of Maslow's Theory of Human Motivation was its simplicity and relevance. Maslow used a diagram to demonstrate the various levels of human needs that was explained in his theory which he referred as 'hierarchy of needs' (Hoffman, ).Download