Cooling and big bang nucleosynthesis

Neil Turok, who once bet Stephen Hawking that gravitational waves would never be detected, also says: But due to the fact that protons are lighter than neutrons, it becomes more energetically favorable to have more protons than neutrons in the Universe.

Inin A Universe from Nothing, Lawrence Krauss references big bang "calculations that so beautifully explain the observed abundance of the light elements hydrogen, helium, and lithium ", yet in two papers, in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and in Physical Review Letters, report two extreme problems with the lithium prediction, with the lithium-6 prediction off by a thousand fold see below and all lithium isotopes showing a "discrepancy" from "BBN calculations" indicating that "the Li problem seems to be an universal problem, regardless of the parent galaxy" see below.

First of all, measurements of the various elemental abundances should yield a consistent value of OmegaB h2 the intersection of the horizontal bands and the various lines.

Extrasolar — beyond the sun. This sort of energy cannot be detected directly, but measurements of, e. Radio galaxy — Galaxy that emanates a large amount of radio waves. Interstellar medium — Gas and dust located between the stars. This set up hot spots where the compression was greatest and cold spots where the fluid had become its most rarefied.

The TO FAQ on determining astronomical distances provides a thorough run-down of these methods, their applicability and their limitations. This prediction — the initial abundance of the light elements — is one of the greatest predictions to come out of the Big Bang model.

Solar wind — Stream of charged minute particles coming from the sun.

What’s the Origin of the Universe? What happened during the Big Bang?

Thus, it is grossly incorrect to claim that the big bang theory does a good job explaining the origin of the stuff of the universe. Before beginning the examination of the evidence surrounding current cosmology, it is important to understand what Big Bang Theory BBT is and is not. After the majority but not all of hadrons and antihadrons annihilate each other at the end of the Hadron Epoch, leptons such as electrons and antileptons such as positrons dominate the mass of the universe.

Aurora is a radiant emission from the upper atmosphere that occurs intermittently over the middle and high altitudes of both hemispheres. Dark nebula — Dust grains that appear as clouds and is thick enough to shade light from stars in the background.

The Lambda indicates the inclusion of dark energy in the model specifically the cosmological constant, which implies an equation of state where the pressure is equal to -1 times the energy density.

Fred Hoyle 's original work on nucleosynthesis of heavier elements in stars, occurred just after World War II.


Electromagnetic radiation — Radiation that travels through space at the speed of light, and increases the interplay of oscillating and magnetic fields.

Unlike those in the Sun, the reactions only lasted for a brief time thanks to the fact that the universe's temperature and density were dropping rapidly as it expanded.

After the majority but not all of hadrons and antihadrons annihilate each other at the end of the Hadron Epoch, leptons such as electrons and antileptons such as positrons dominate the mass of the universe. We will come back to this point below, but let us take a moment to discuss the measurements that led to the current value Ned Wright's CMB page is also worth reading for more detail on the early history of CMBR measurements.

Finally, we do not expect the exact distribution of mass in the simulation to tell us any thing in particular; we only want to compare the statistical properties of the distribution to our universe.

While most cosmologists reject that God could have created the universe in six literal days, they themselves believe that within 20 minutes of the big bang, all of its matter had been created, via big bang nucleosynthesis BBN. Inafter 30 years of wrestling with this problem, as phys.

As electrons and positrons collide and annihilate each other, energy in the form of photons is freed up, and colliding photons in turn create more electron - positron pairs.

After the formation of the CMBR and decoupling, however, the baryons also fell into the gravitational wells set up by the dark matter and began to form stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, and so on. It is now claimed that trillions upon trillions of dark matter bubbles DMBs allegedly formed in a just-so arrangement by way of the big bang so that each one would gravitationally attract gas to form the trillions of alleged Population III protostars.

Like stars and planets, galaxies have real motions in response to their local gravitational environment: As electrons and positrons collide and annihilate each other, energy in the form of photons is freed up, and colliding photons in turn create more electron - positron pairs.

Rotation — Spin of an asteroid, planet, star, moon, or galaxy on its central axis. Superfluid — State of matter exhibiting frictionless flow. There are an estimated photons per cubic centimeter in the universe.

But a particular value for the baryon-to-photon ratio needs to be assumed ad hoc to obtain the required abundances. Dark energy is also an area of intense interest for scientists, but it is not clear whether direct detection of dark energy will be possible. Special relativity — Theory of relativity applied concerning uniform motion.

In other words, how could planets, stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc. The Planck cosmological parameters paper admits: Reflection nebula — Gas and dust clouds made visible due to the dust reflection from the light of nearby star.

You will notice I have said nothing about an 'explosion' - the big bang theory describes how our universe is evolving, not how it began.

The most well-known of them claim that the universe is a static thing and it cannot change. Cryovolcanism is an icy volcano. The regions that become densest the fastest form stars first — as soon at million years after the Big Bang — while other regions remain neutral, devoid of stars, and pristine for longer.

This is often confused with the "Hubble Constant".Space Terms. If you ever wonder the meaning of an astronomical word, search no further and browse below to find the definition of the space term.

Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Atom: A Single Oxygen Atom's Journey from the Big Bang to Life on Earth and Beyond at Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. The Era of Atoms (, years – 1 billion years or so) began as the universe finally cooled and expanded enough for the nuclei to capture free electrons, forming fully-fledged, neutral atoms.

Evidence for the Big Bang

It is, however, the most widely-accepted and popular. This is due to the fact that the Big Bang theory alone is able to explain the origin of all known matter, the laws of physics, and the large.

Since the Big Bang, billion years ago, the universe has passed through many different phases or epochs. Due to the extreme conditions and the violence of its very early stages, it arguably saw more activity and change during the first second than in all the billions of years since.

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high-density and high-temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the .

Cooling and big bang nucleosynthesis
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